Before they hand management of the House of Representatives over to Democrats, House Republicans are mounting another effort to carry Silicon Valley giants accountable for what they are saying is rampant liberal bias at tech firms. In the recent seat this time: Google CEO Sundar Pichai.

On Tuesday, Pichai will testify earlier than the House Judiciary Committee in a listening to targeted on transparency, knowledge assortment, and filtering. Until now, Pichai has principally prevented the general public lashings in Washington that his contemporaries, like Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey, have obtained. In September, Google declined to ship both Pichai or Larry Page, CEO of Google’s mum or dad firm Alphabet, to testify alongside Dorsey and Facebook chief working officer Sheryl Sandberg earlier than the Senate Intelligence Committee. Senators as a substitute vented their frustrations with Google to an empty chair, artfully reserved with a reputation plate for Page.

Pichai has since held closed door conferences with main Republicans, together with House majority chief Kevin McCarthy, who has repeatedly accused Google of skewing its search leads to favor of Democrats and their causes. Both McCarthy and Judiciary Committee chairman Bob Goodlatte have signaled that these prices will probably be central to the committee’s questioning.

“Online technology is now an integral part of most Americans’ modern lifestyle,” Goodlatte mentioned in an announcement asserting the listening to. “However, the technology behind online services like social media and Internet search engines can also be used to suppress particular viewpoints and manipulate public opinion.”

In his ready remarks, launched by the committee Monday night time, Pichai defended Google in opposition to such assaults. “I lead this company without political bias and work to ensure that our products continue to operate that way. To do otherwise would go against our core principles and our business interests,” he wrote. “We are a company that provides platforms for diverse perspectives and opinions—and we have no shortage of them among our own employees.”

That will not doubtless cease conservatives on the committee from crying censorship. As with so many of those hearings, you could be sure there will probably be loads of partisan grandstanding. But for these lawmakers interested by doing greater than pandering to the social gathering, there are many urgent questions relating to the best way Google works. Congress ought to need solutions. Here are just some.

The House Judiciary Committee’s listening to will start at 10 AM ET on Tuesday. WIRED could have a reside stream of the listening to right here.

Why did Google change its thoughts about pursuing enterprise in China?

Google has confronted vehement opposition from workers and members of each events over its plans to discover constructing a censored search engine for China, which was first reported by The Intercept this summer time. After all, the corporate loudly shut down its Chinese search choices in 2010 over issues about censorship. Now the query is: What modified?

So far, Google executives have been tight-lipped about this system, known as Dragonfly. At the Senate listening to the place Google was a no-show in September, senators condemned Google’s renewed curiosity in China and instructed it was one purpose high executives declined their invitation. During a second listening to with the Senate Commerce Committee later that month, lawmakers repeatedly pressed the corporate’s chief privateness officer, Keith Enright, to inform them extra about Dragonfly. Enright principally repeated a obscure speaking level.

Since then, Pichai has a minimum of admitted to Dragonfly’s existence and provided some semblance of an evidence for it. “Our mission is to provide information to everyone, and [China] is 20 percent of the world’s population,” Pichai informed WIRED in October. “We wanted to learn what it would look like if Google were in China. That’s what we’ve built internally.”

And but, there are nonetheless so many unanswered questions. Pichai additionally informed WIRED that the Dragonfly experiment confirmed that in China, Google would nonetheless be capable to perform “well over 99 percent” of individuals’s searches. The extra pertinent query, although, is what forms of searches are prohibited? And why does Google really feel that quantity of censorship is palatable?

Then there’s the query of what entry the Chinese authorities must individuals’s search historical past. According to The Intercept, the Dragonfly system requires customers to log in to carry out a search, tracks customers’ areas, and shares knowledge again with a Chinese third social gathering. Google has scarcely commented on these particulars. With Pichai below oath, lawmakers might change that on Tuesday.

What is Google doing to forestall new advert fraud schemes popping up throughout its platforms and Android apps?

Google instructions the most important share of digital promoting income within the nation. It has additionally discovered itself on the heart of two large advert fraud schemes in simply the previous couple of months. In October, Buzzfeed News reported on a community of 125 Android apps and web sites that have been monitoring consumer conduct, solely to imitate it with a community of bots and rip-off advertisers out of “potentially hundreds of millions of dollars” by focusing on advertisements at these bots. (Google estimates the injury was extra like $10 million.)

Then simply final month, Google eliminated two apps from the Play retailer that Buzzfeed News additionally discovered to be committing fraud. These apps, based mostly in China, have been monitoring customers’ app downloads, falsely claiming credit score for the downloads, after which banking the referral charges from these apps.

In each circumstances, Google eliminated the apps concerned within the schemes. The firm additionally assisted the US authorities in its investigation into legal advert fraud rings, which resulted in eight indictments late final month. But questions stay about how these scams fell by way of the cracks in Google’s safety system and what needs to be executed about it. Senator Mark Warner, vice chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee, has been pressuring the Federal Trade Commission to carry Google accountable for these cyber crimes. Members of the House might amplify that strain.

When did Google first perceive the extent of Google+’s vulnerabilities, and why did not the corporate act sooner?

On Monday, only a day earlier than Pichai was set to testify, Google introduced {that a} Google+ bug uncovered knowledge from 52.5 million accounts. It’s the second Google+ publicity found this yr. In October, The Wall Street Journal reported on one other bug that uncovered 500,000 accounts, which Google had beforehand saved quiet to keep away from “immediate regulatory interest,” in keeping with an organization memo obtained by the Journal.

That similar month, Google introduced it might be shutting down Google+ for shoppers in August of 2019, due partly to safety issues unearthed throughout a company-wide privateness and safety audit. But the newest breach, which resulted from a November software program replace, hastened that timeline: The firm is now pulling Google+’s APIs inside 90 days.

The query for Pichai is how early Google turned conscious of Google+’s many vulnerabilities and why it did not transfer sooner to guard its customers.

Why does Google monitor location knowledge of customers who’ve location historical past disabled?

An Associated Press investigation in August discovered that Google tracks smartphone customers’ location knowledge, even when these customers have turned off the Location History setting on their telephones. At the time, Google’s help web page claimed that “With Location History off, the places you go are no longer stored.” After the AP report was revealed, the corporate up to date the language to say, “Your settings for other location services on your device, like Google Location Services and Find My Device, are not changed.” This impacts Android customers and iPhone customers who’ve the Google Maps app.

Google mentioned it collects this knowledge to “improve people’s experience” and permits individuals to delete this historical past at any time when they need. And but, the off change is buried deep in customers’ Google account settings, to not point out the truth that customers who’ve already disabled their location historical past may moderately consider that applies to all location historical past.

At a listening to ostensibly targeted on transparency, the distinction between shoppers’ privateness expectations and Google’s company practices appear greater than related.

Speaking of privateness, what does Google need out of a federal privateness invoice?

Tech giants have been lobbying laborious for a federal privateness invoice that may supersede a stricter invoice set to take impact in California in January 2020. Google has launched a coverage paper outlining in broad strokes its imaginative and prescient for a federal legislation. A legislation ought to “mandate transparency and help individuals be informed” and require firms to “collect and use personal information responsibly.” But the paper affords few particulars about what that may imply in apply.

What degree of management ought to shoppers have? What limits ought to there be when it comes to the quantity and forms of knowledge companies can gather on individuals within the first place? How would these limits change the best way Google does enterprise? Who ought to implement such a legislation, and the way ought to violators be punished?

You could be certain these are questions that Google’s lobbyists are already asking and answering behind closed doorways. As the legislation takes form, it is in everybody’s greatest curiosity to get them out into the open.

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